Knee injuries, particularly torn ligaments are a common problem for our canine companions. In this comprehensive guide, our Somerset vets discuss dog knee surgery, shedding light on torn ligaments, knee injuries, surgical options, and the road to recovery.
Your Dog's Knee Health
Healthy and pain-free knees are essential when it comes to achieving an active lifestyle and good quality of life for your dog. Although there are many dog foods and supplements that your vet can recommend to help keep your dog's joints in good condition, cruciate injuries (or ACL injuries as they are sometimes called) can occur causing your dog pain and seriously limiting their mobility.
Cranial Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Dogs
The dog's cranial cruciate ligament (also called the CCL, CrCL, ACL or cruciate) is one of two ligaments in the leg that connect the shin bone to the thigh bone and allow for proper (pain-free) knee function.
Knee pain stemming from a torn cruciate can come on suddenly during exercise but is equally likely to gradually develop over time. If your dog has injured their cruciate ligament and continues to run, jump and play, then the injury may quickly become more severe and more painful.
Potential Causes of Dog Knee Pain
If your pooch has an injured cruciate, pain is caused by the knee's instability and a motion called 'tibial thrust'.
Tibial thrust is a sliding motion caused by the transmission of weight up the dog's shin bone (tibia) and across the knee, causing the shinbone to “thrust” forward in relation to the dog's thigh bone (femur). The forward thrust movement occurs because the top of the tibia is sloped, and the dog's injured cruciate cannot prevent the unwanted movement from occurring.
Other causes of knee pain in dogs can include degenerative joint conditions, osteoarthritis, or patella luxation.
Signs of a Torn Ligament in Dogs
If your dog has a painful cruciate injury they will not be able to run or walk normally and will likely display other symptoms such as:
- Difficulties rising up off of the floor (particularly after rest, following exercise)
- Pronounced limping in their hind legs
- Stiffness following exercise
Dog Knee Surgery to Treat Cruciate Injuries
Since cruciate injuries are one of the most common knee injuries our vets see in dogs, let's take a close look at how this very painful issue can be treated.
If your dog has a torn cruciate it will require treatment, these injuries will not typically heal on their own. Be sure to book an appointment with your vet as soon as symptoms arise in order to prevent your pup's discomfort from becoming more severe. Unfortunately, the majority of dogs who experience a torn cruciate ligament in one leg, go on to injure the other leg soon afterwards, severely restricting mobility and reducing quality of life.
Dog knee surgery for torn ligaments and other injuries is a transformative option that aims to restore your furry companion's mobility and quality of life. If your dog is diagnosed with a torn cruciate your vet is likely to recommend one of three knee surgeries to help your canine companion regain normal mobility.
Extracapsular Lateral Suture Stabilization (ELSS / ECLS)
Extracapsular Lateral Suture Stabilization can be used to treat dogs that weigh less than 50 pounds. This procedure works by preventing tibial thrust with the help of a surgically placed suture. The suture stabilizes the dog's knee by pulling the joint tight and preventing the front-to-back sliding of the tibia. This allows the cruciate time to heal, and the muscles surrounding the knee an opportunity to regain their strength. ELSS surgery is a relatively quick and uncomplicated procedure with a good success rate in small to medium-sized dogs.
Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO)
TPLO is a common treatment for a torn cruciate and aims to reduce tibial thrust without relying on the dog's cruciate. This treatment involves making a complete cut through the top of the tibia (tibial plateau), then rotating the tibial plateau in order to change its angle. Finally, a metal plate is added to stabilize the cut bone as it heals. Your dog's leg will gradually heal and strengthen over the course of several months following TPLO surgery.
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA)
TTA is similar to TPLO and involves surgically separating the front part of the tibia from the rest of the bone, then adding a spacer between the two sections to move the front section up and forward. This surgery prevents much of the tibia thrust movement from occurring. As with TPLO surgery, a bone plate will be attached in order to hold the front section of the tibia in its correct position until the bone has had sufficient time to heal. Dogs with a steep tibial plateau (angle of the top section of the tibia) tend to be excellent candidates for TTA surgery.
Which Knee Surgery is Right For Your Dog
After a thorough examination of your dog's knee movement and geometry, your vet will consider your dog's age, weight, size and lifestyle, then recommend the treatment that's best in your dog's case.
Aiding Your Dog's Recovery From Knee Surgery
It's important to understand that, regardless of which surgery you choose for your dog, the road to recovery will be a long one. In many cases dogs are able to walk as soon as 24 hours after surgery, but do not expect your dog to recover fully and a return to normal activities for at least 12 - 16 weeks.
To help get your dog back to their normal day to day lifestyle as quickly as possible, follow your vet's post-operative instructions carefully. Allowing your dog to begin running and jumping before the knee has completely healed could lead to a serious re-injury and bring your dog back to square one.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.